Now I am less sure. 3. Alon: so colloquially, you might hear pescado guppy? Scientific hypotheses arent often a matter of either-or. Actually, the Nilo-Saharan situation looks not unlike Ryans scenario: very old families some small, some quite large that have been in low-level contact since ever. Good to have confirmation of Early European Farmer ancestry in the Maghreb. I dont believe that until somebody tries. Is there a mechanism among bands of hunter-gatherers that would have systematically done that across a region as large as that in which even non-Bantu Niger-Congo is spoken, other than demic replacement? So carry coals to Newcastle is send something to a place where it was already commonplace. Of course North Germanic is a mess in its own right; AFAIK the historical split is Danish/Swedish vs. Icelandic/Norwegian (with a few marginal dialects that dont belong in either), but in the modern situation it only works (and then barely) if Norwegian means Landsml; Bokml is pretty much just Danish-across-the-Skagerrak and Nynorsk is trying really hard to get closer to Swedish. Farefare and Dagaare have the same etymon as Moor, though the three languages dont seem to constitute a branch of WOV together; its difficult to be sure with so many criss-crossing isoglosses. *kala has also been considered related to IE words for big fish like whale and Latin squalus. Like many have answered before, its a semitic language. If you are interested in linguistics, you should check a book of language families in your No evidence is offered for this so the case is hard to assess. However, if borrowed SOV word order is counted as a single diffused areal trait, it may be argued that it should rank high in significance for defining the linguistic area, since it is much more difficult for a language to change so much of its basic structure under areal influence than it is to acquire less complex traits. Ugaritic, Hebrew dg, dag [compared to aforementioned *du- by llich-Switych] Some scholars had thought that the bundling of areal traits, clustering at the boundaries of a linguistic area, might be necessary for defining a linguistic area, though this has proven a poor criterion. Waama may even be genetically closer historically to WOV than Eastern, but in general its pretty far from anything at present. Certainly on libgen), and there: While Im at it, this conference handout from 2016 (in English) compares PIE accent & ablaut categories to PU second-syllable vowels, which looks pretty neat and becomes even more convincing if you side with those that reconstruct the less open one of the only two PU second-syllable vowels as [] instead of the traditional [i] or the classical []. Swahili Kisu kimoja kilitosha One knife was enough. Rabbit isnt exotic everywhere, I guess. In northern Canada and Alaska theres another, larger species called the sheefish or inconnu. Greek and type). So yes, I support Macrocushitic. First, it may help some to know that DM is quoting the Blench article, not a post somewhere above. That said, classical historical linguistics has nothing to say about dates (because, as above, nobody understands lexical change), but statistical methods can give limits on dates. In fact it strikes me as typologically extremely weird. Digital Dictionaries of South Asia @DE, as for me, what matters practically is whether we have comparanda worthy of closer examination or serious work. List 3 important characteristics of Afro-Asiatic family. there were Khoisan-speaking itinerant hunter-gatherer/blacksmiths, To me, separate movements of Natufian related peoples at widely divergent periods, into Egypt, North African and Ethiopia (more than once), where they found a crazy diversity of substrates that in some cases involved hunter-gatherers whose languages may have been diverging for 70,000 years or more in situ, and interacted with them for centuries in non-state settings where most forces were centrifugal, few were homogenizing. Ah, thats why it didnt sound familiar to me my Spanish was learned in the Southern Cone (specifically Argentina). However, Gsiorowski instead suggests that *-rijaz is a native formation; he derives it from earlier *-azrijaz, which he etymologises as a zero-grade form of *-sr suffixed with *-ih, creating a suffix *-sr-ih for forming feminine agent nouns, which were then masculinised by attaching *-s. If your preferred feed is Twitter, you can follow @languagehat to get auch awwal neferayn baythallu biar bayst in the old days two men would buy [a days] fish for ten baysa; ferner in Bahrayn hl dried fsh (HOL-2), der noch REI 94 hle Suppe = (fish) soup dazu anfhrt. Many of the modernist papers do not really have much to say about the purpose of classification, except where they continue and link it to dates, geography or human genetics. The constants are the semantically salient human and liquid classes; elsewhere the systems get regularly remodelled and recreated. We know that Neolithic technologies flowed into Egypt. Naked Translations That was deliberate. oh. Y Geiriadur Mawr misleadingly glosses this math o bisgodyn mawr syn llamu or dr, mr-fochyn a kind of big fish [sic] which leaps out of the water, sea-pig, but doesnt actually define mr-fochyn sea-pig anywhere. I can only see four French loans offhand (and four Norse.). Im fairly sure that a Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of the currently spoken Germanic languages based on Swadesh lists would show that English was basal. Rigorously , (From which it follows that the Germanic languages originated in the North Sea. *not sure if English speakers do it, consider it my martian accent. It seems to me that the linguistic argument from diversity has always been that AA developed in the areas of diversity, and thats what I dont see supported by other lines of evidence. Separately, the comments about the sizes of fish around the world set me thinking. Certainly, the total available biomass of salt-water fish is much greater. Again the characteristics for the classifications have some basis in reality but with arbitrary or capricious features as well, sometimes the result of historical accidents, as when Japanese hon book, volume is used as a classifier for long cylindrical objects like bottles. If it was from Latin or Greek, I honestly do not know what were the main book Latin and Greek words for porcupine:(. Having followed the link to the South Arabian thread link, it struck me that unless he posts under a pseudonym, Trevor has to be one of the most influential lurkers in the hallowed history of bligging. Regular verbs also all make their gerunds by adding noun class suffixes directly to the verb stem itself. Vince, his wife Diana, and their daughters live and minister in St. Louis and they love to travel, watch movies and bust some spades. @J Pystynen: I probably phrased what I was saying badly. I do recognize your point about the isolates being more prevalent as a challenge to my ideas. Tee hee. And experiential factors of frequency of use in the everyday colloquial speech that constitutes the linguistic input and output of young children explain why certain grammatical categories are acquired relatively late in languages where they constitute high-register or literate constructions. The same seems to have been true of Chadic peoples, Cushitic peoples. However, in a situation where the traits do coincide at a clear boundary, rare though this may be, the definition of a linguistic area to match their boundaries is relatively secure. If Etymology Online is to be believed, tug: c. 1200, from weak grade of Old English teohan to pull, drag, from Proto-Germanic *teuhan to pull (source also of Old High German zucchen to pull, jerk, German zcken to draw quickly), from PIE root *deuk- to lead.. Bits of Greenbergs Ubangi dont belong (his Adamawa-Eastern was a real mess) but Senoufo definitely is related. This helped me get a ground sense of how the grouping may not be as strong as some would have it, DE. There seems to be no doubt at all, nevertheless, that Goemai is Chadic. Of course there are other issues, e.g. Wordorigins paperpools Mongolian/English dictionary Linguistically, Egypt seems more parsimonious as a starting point. Infixes are inserted within a root. Syntax is quite often borrowed. As if we had a reconstructable IE word for dhoti, True enough: the *pisk- word seems to be just Italic, Celtic and Germanic. So this absence is not a neutral thing to be blithely ignored in comparative work: its a powerful argument against Mande being related to Volta-Congo at all. Anybody know of parallels elsewhere? My name is Steve Dodson; Im a retired copyeditor currently living in western Massachusetts after many years in New York City. The most geocities thing Ive seen in decades. The Fate of Books Im also available if you need a coauthor. On reflection, the mediopassive -r would be rather different from the locatives involved in progressive forms: rather than being an integral part of the relevant construction itself, it would be a sort of reinforcement of the meaning already inherent in a mediopassive verb, emphasising that the effect of the action didnt pass over to any other entity apart from the subject. My next idea was professionalization (a source of jargon). Mesmes ttmi does not really look like Soqotri fare, but maybe I am missing something. But how much has changed in the two years! Sometimes thats good enough but I feel like I need to nail this stuff down or at least have a more practical reference at hand than wiki linguistics entries. (There was also one on philolsophy. (Hausa has borrowed two; Thai has borrowed one through ten.). It is also not the case that phylogenetic analysis, Bayesian or otherwise, can only use the composition of the vocabulary as data from languages. Also modern sites are terribly heavy. To me, separate movements of Natufian related peoples at widely divergent periods, into Egypt, North African and Ethiopia (more than once), where they found a crazy diversity of substrates that in some cases involved hunter-gatherers whose languages may have been diverging for 70,000 years or more in situ, and interacted with them for centuries in non-state settings where most forces were centrifugal, few were homogenizing. Ha! These nominal classifications make themselves felt primarily in agreement systems as expressed on: determiners, adjectives, subject and object marking on verbs. @Lameen, yes, an unfortunate formulation (historical linguistics), but I see what he means. That could be wholly unrelated to what I call a blunder; Ill need to check. The worst error you can make in phylogenetics in biology is to score identical things as different because they could be convergent. When the time depth is double or triple that amount, lexical loss, semantic change, and the effects of morphologically conditioned changes and phonological erosion so distort the evidence that it is Unfortunaletly they do not describe the archaeological context. But as it happens, Gldemann does do both: for a more reconstruction-centric example, cf. In this case, if you decreed beforehand that h matched any velar or labial-velar it would give you the right answer for die, though not river; it would give you the wrong answer for the certain cognates Kusaal suo, Nawdm hmga hare.. I again ask, in pre-state settings with limited trade goods, how would linguistic uniformity across broad areas arise, except through significant population replacement. Same root of course (also tug which makes my Old Norse loan senses tingle), just not the same ablaut or Verner grade. Yes, thats a lot of work. Etymologically the u is long, so an actual Modern English cognate might have become ourox. I do wonder to what extent Akkadian, or a direct descendant thereof, was still the spoken language in the Neo-Assyrian and/or Neo-Babylonian empires and if so, how much relation it held to the written language of the contemporary cuneiform tablets. The most striking case is Altaic, where one group of scholars produces thousands of reconstructed forms, and another denies that the major branches are even related. and then theres some intriguing lexical evidence that Longobardic was actually a North Germanic language. This is why some people find it important, but it also evolves differently. Yes. Scholars have at times utilized the following considerations as criteria: (a) the number of traits shared by languages in a geographical area, (b) bundling of the traits in some significant way (for example, clustering at roughly the same geographical boundaries), and (c) the weight of different areal traits (some are counted differently from others on the assumption that some provide stronger evidence than others of areal affiliation) (see Campbell et al. Then he quotes from the very same article by Nichols as Claude Rilly (where he was calculating the degree of closeness between Meroitic and Nubian words for brother and sister). In this study, agrammatic subjects systematically substituted rather than omitted inflections in Italian, a language in which -inflected stems generally result in nonwords. I checked Rabin, their quoted source (Lexicostatistics and the internal divisions of Semitic, in Bynon and Bynons Hamito-Semitica, 1975, doi: 10.1515/9783111356167.85). Much of the detail of his comparative stuff is obsolete now (it dates from long before Indo-European linguistics was upended by the decipherment of Hittite, for example) but its still a good illustration of how proper comparative linguistics works. The bit of apian anatomy responsible was called a stinger in Texas, I maybe remember. Its very hard for me to understand what dynamics would allow a trade language to wipe out the preexisting languages in a pre-state setting with only limited trade. Sigh. The teacher mentioned dual, plural, collective and singulative and said that it is technically possible to make combinations. Yupik languages: Diriku: bnt: Bantu (Other) Eggon: nic : Niger-Kordofanian (Other) Favorlang: map: Austronesian (Other) Gorani: ira: Iranian (Other) Gunian: aus: Australian languages: Gwahatike: paa: Semitic (Other) 2. Courtesy Glenn M. Schwartz. Can the qpAdm software(35,36), distinguish between these scenarios? Polite terms used in the Javanese polite register.). Yes, I had seen that. PIE *Vs()rV > *VzrV > PGmc *VrV. *) and I started from Greek but didnt/havent advanced far. and founded the first Semitic Empire at Kish. Its a heated overstatement about the authors perceived opponents.. Also in other words for repeated actions (as a singular phenomenon): skrigeri = screaming. Got it?. With the inspiration provided by the monoconsonantal Egyptian symbols, these people designed a fully phonetic and greatly simplified writing system which consists entirely of symbols for individual consonants. Actually, one famous case of exactly the phenomenon you describe has just occurred to me: the astonishing, But maybe Enlgish-speaking linguists felt differently. In line with a strong lexicalist approach to morphological representation,3 this observation has implications for the internal organization of the mental lexicon in terms of morphological families. More specifically, it implies the listing of morphologically related lexical items around a nucleus (Satellite Hypothesis, Lukatela, Gligorijevic, Kostic, & Turvey, 1980) or under a head, possibly the root, as proposed by Jarema and Kehayia (1992). Submicroscopic grain? The modern term is KONGO. Meinhofs system of classification of the Hamitic languages was based on a belief that speakers of Hamitic became largely coterminous with cattle herding peoples with essentially Caucasian origins, intrinsically different from and superior to the Negroes of Africa. However, in the case of the so-called Nilo-Hamitic languages (a concept he introduced), it was based on the typological feature of gender and a fallacious theory of language mixture. Meinhof did this although earlier work by scholars such as Lepsius and Johnston had substantiated that the languages which he would later dub Nilo-Hamitic were Nilotic languages, with numerous similarities in vocabulary to other Nilotic languages. I looked in vain for something earlier in the thread that I could connect to that comment, can you expand? - But I would point out that he also disbelieves in Penutian, and that means his respect for the communis opinio extends to both the positive and negative polarities. As far as I know, the new & flashy hypothesis that Semitic originated where East & West Semitic met in historical times is textbook wisdom. Yes, it seems to be pan-Brythonic. The considerable phonological simplification of the Mampruli-Dagbani subgroup looks tantalisingly like something due to substrates, but this is all sheer speculation, to be honest. World Wide Words As Ive said before, Im always surprised by Gerrit Dimmendaals acceptance of Nilo-Saharan as a genetic unity, when he shows a (very sensible, in my view) caution with other overhasty Greenbergian constructions like Niger-Congo and Khoisan. The Proto-Sinaitic character for /n/, on the other hand, was based on the Egyptian symbol representing /d/, a hieroglyph depicting a serpent, and received its Semitic value from the initial consonant in the Proto-Sinaitic word for snake.. I found Starostins lexicostatistical theory for showing substrate influence interesting. Moreover, Naden cites a Mampruli proverb Yugumpiinni kuri piima n-ki lkku The hedgehog forges arrows but has no quiver, which confirms the hedgehog-prickle = arrow thing. Our phylogenetic network (Figure 4) shows that there was not a third domestication process, rather there was a single origin of domesticated taurine (Asian, African, and European all share a recent common ancestor denoted by an asterisk in Figure 4, with Asian cattle sister to the rest of the taurine lineage), followed by admixture with an ancestral population in Africa (migration edge a in Figure 4, which is consistent across 6 separate TreeMix runs, Figure S4). Of course this would predict being able to find some semantically divergent verb comparisons. It thus represents something of a hybrid writing system, combining the consonantal nature of Proto-Canaanite with the graphic form of the Mesopotamian scripts, although some scholars have argued that the shapes of the Ugaritic consonantal characters were themselves modeled on the Proto-Canaanite symbols but executed with the cuneiform stylus. If you want still more detail, follow up the references in that article. There is or used to be an important commercial whitefish fishery on Lake Superior and other large lakes in that area. a fish, especially when used as food, 2. a side dish, specifically referring to fish . (unless one of the authors was the best man at the editors wedding). That wouldnt necessarily lead to the expansion of a language group, but it wouldnt be surprising. I can change gender by suffixation, or in a childish manner by adding -a to make it feminine (regularized in Latvian for human beings) and changing agreement (regularized in Russian for human beings). Blench himself collected some very likely cases of this (from central Nigeria, IIRC.) Its not as crude as early lexicostatistics. It doesnt sound like they developed into anything triple-vowel-like, either. 1966. Lately, scholars seeking the mechanisms for secondary state formation have focused on local trajectories distinct from the Mesopotamian model, a case in point being the dry-farming region of the Jezireh. This is a bigger impediment to my AA ideas than I had recognized. The method which the adapters employed in turning the Egyptian script to their own use was dubbed the acrophonic principle by the British Egyptologist Sir Alan Gardiner. He claims that the principal splitters dont actually engage with the details of the languages theyre disaggregating. by johnydon22 ( m ): 7:38am On Nov 07, 2015 Op Yahweh is a semitic deity and it has Semitic origin and has attributes of many older semtic deities showing it developed theological attributes and anthropomorphical attributed gradually. For I saw Mehri/Jibbali/Soqotri words that you quoted and random stuff like: This new era of Almaradam has made it necessary for us to change our brand into a more global looking brand where Almaradam has evolved into Sayd Oman. : *hduH- > Proto-Gk. I always understood that the sedentary Plains tribes declined because, after the introduction of the horse, you could simply live a lot better by buffalo hunting than by farming in that climate. The verb digi has got the whole set of regular inchoative and causative derived forms that other body-position verbs do, and belongs to the minority imperfective-only conjugation just like the others, so it doesnt seem likely to be a recent loan or anything of that kind.
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